內心

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內心(巴利語:hadaya),有多種含義,常指色法的心臟、肉團心,有時亦指名法的心、意、識、心念、心意、意界等。

經藏之用例

長部·自歡喜經》:

世尊!此中有一類沙門、婆羅門依熱誠、精勤、修定、不放逸、正作意、如是到達心定;如是於定心省察此身下至足跖之皮,上至頭髮之端,以皮膚為限,全身包滿種種不淨,即此身中有:頭髮、微毛、爪、齒、皮膚、肉、筋肉、骨、髓、腎、心臟、肝、肋膜、脾、隔膜、胃、糞、膽汁、痰、膿、血、汗、脂肪、淚、油、痰唾、鼻涕、骨液、尿等。

長部·大念處經》:

諸比庫!比庫於皮覆包充滿種種不淨物之此身,觀察此身,上至頭髮,下至跖底,了知:「於此身有發、髦、爪、齒、皮、肉、筋、骨、髓、腎臟、心臟、肝臟、肋膜、脾臟、肺、腸、腸間膜、胃、排泄物、膽汁、痰、膿、血、汗、脂肪、淚、淋巴液、唾液、粘液、關節液、尿。」[1]

中部·第五·無穢經Anaṅgaṇasuttaṃ)》:

Atha kho, āvuso, paṇḍuputto ājīvako purāṇayānakāraputto attamano attamanavācaṃ nicchāresi – 「hadayā hadayaṃ maññe aññāya tacchatī」 ti.
尊者,如此,般都子外道滿心歡喜,喜悅地說道:「以使其得以矯正。」
tesaṃ āyasmā sāriputto iminā dhammapariyāyena hadayā hadayaṃ maññe aññāya tacchati.
對這些人,尊者沙利子之了知他們的以此教法使其得以矯正。

相應部·有偈篇·第七·婆羅門相應·阿拉漢品·桑達利卡婆羅門經Sundarikasuttaṃ)》:

Māno hi te brāhmaṇa khāribhāro,Kodho dhumo bhasmani mosavajjaṃ;Jivhā sujā hadayaṃ jotiṭhānaṃ,Attā sudanto purisassa joti.
婆羅門,傲慢是你的重擔[2];憤怒如煙,妄語如灰(使知識之火發不出光輝)[3];(我的)舌如勺子(盛出法的知識)[4]內心如火供處(奉獻出光輝)[5];善調服的心,是人的光輝。[6]

相應部·有偈篇·第十·亞卡相應·蘇西樓馬亞卡經Sūcilomasuttaṃ)》:

Pañhaṃ taṃ, samaṇa pucchissāmi. Sace me na byākarissasi, cittaṃ vā te khipissāmi, hadayaṃ vā te phālessāmi, pādesu vā gahetvā pāragaṅgāya khipissāmī.
沙門,我問你一個問題,若你不能說明清楚,我將攪亂你的心,撕裂你的心臟,或者抓着你雙腳扔到恆河的對岸去。[7]

小部·大義釋·意品》:

Manoti yaṃ cittaṃ mano mānasaṃ hadayaṃ paṇḍaraṃ mano manāyatanaṃ manindriyaṃ viññāṇaṃ viññāṇakkhandho tajjā manoviññāṇadhātu, ayaṃ vuccati mano.
「意」即是心,「意」稱為意圖、內心、淨白,「意」稱為意處、意根、識、識蘊、所生意識界,這即是「意」。

論藏之用例

論藏·分別論》:

Tattha katamā manodhātu? Cakkhuviññāṇadhātuyā uppajjitvā niruddhasamanantarā uppajjati cittaṃ mano mānasaṃ hadayaṃ paṇḍaraṃ mano manāyatanaṃ manindriyaṃ viññāṇaṃ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanodhātu; sotaviññāṇadhātuyā…pe… ghānaviññāṇadhātuyā…pe… jivhāviññāṇadhātuyā…pe… kāyaviññāṇadhātuyā uppajjitvā niruddhasamanantarā uppajjati cittaṃ mano mānasaṃ hadayaṃ paṇḍaraṃ mano manāyatanaṃ manindriyaṃ viññāṇaṃ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanodhātu sabbadhammesu vā pana paṭhamasamannāhāro uppajjati cittaṃ mano mānasaṃ hadayaṃ paṇḍaraṃ mano manāyatanaṃ manindriyaṃ viññāṇaṃ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanodhātu – ayaṃ vuccati 『『 manodhātu 』』 .
其中,哪些是意界呢?在眼識界生已即滅後,無間斷地生起的心,名為意圖、內心、淨白的意,名為意處、意根、識、識蘊、 所生意界的意;耳識界……鼻識界……舌識界……身識界生已即滅後,無間斷地生起的心,名為意圖、內心、淨白之意,名為意處、意根、識、識蘊、 所生意界的意,又或者最初注意一切法時所生起的心,名為意圖、內心、淨白的意,名為意處、意根、識、識蘊、 所生意界的意。這稱為『意界』。

論藏·法集論》:

Katamaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ hoti? Yaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ mano mānasaṃ hadayaṃ paṇḍaraṃ mano manāyatanaṃ manindriyaṃ viññāṇaṃ viññāṇakkhandho tajjāmanoviññāṇadhātu – idaṃ tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ hoti.
為何說其時有心呢?其時有所有之心、名為意圖、內心、淨白之意,名為意處、意根、識、識蘊、所生意識界的意--這即是其時有心。[8]

參見條目

注釋與引用

  1. 觉音尊者在《清净道论·第八·说随念业处品》解释三十二种身体成分:“尿、关结滑液、涕、唾、膏、泪、脂肪、汗、 血、脓、痰、胆汁、脑、粪、胃中物、肠间膜、肠、肺脏、脾脏、肋、肝脏、心脏、肾脏、骨髓、骨、腱、肉、皮、齿、爪、毛、 发”。
  2. Piya Tan Beng Sin: When a pingo-load is being carried, with each step, the load brings the trays to hit the ground. Similarly, though conceit props us up on account of birth, clan, family, etc, it causes envy to arise and thereby pulls one down to the four states of suffering (SA 1:236).
  3. Piya Tan Beng Sin: When defiled by the smoke of anger, the fire of knowledge does not shine. (SA 1:236)
  4. Piya Tan Beng Sin: My (the Buddha's) tongue is the ladle offering of the Dharma sacrifice. (SA 1:236)
  5. Piya Tan Beng Sin: Just as your fire altar is on the river bank, the hearts of beings are the sacrificial shrine, the fire altar,for my offerings of the Dharma sacrifice. (SA 1:236)
  6. Piya Tan Beng Sin: Conceit, brahmin, is your pingo-load [shoulder-load];Anger, the smoke; false speech, the ashes;The tongue is the ladle;the heart, the fire shrine;A well-tamed mind is the person's light.
  7. http://www.metta.lk Main Translation by Bhikkhuni Uppalavanna: Recluse, I will ask you a question, if you fail to explain it, I will confuse your mind, or split your heart or taking you by the feet will throw you to the other bank of the of the river.
  8. Buddhist Psychological Ethics, translated from the Pali by C.A.F. Rhys Davids: What on that occasion is thought (cittam)? The thought which on that occasion is ideation, mind, heart, that which is clear, ideation as the sphere of mind, the faculty of mind, intellection, the skandha of intellection, the appropriate element of representative intellection — this is the thought that there then is.